In Defence of Java

Is Java a stagnant, stale programming language, sustained only by its flagship position on one of the more popular language runtimes? It’s increasingly believed by many software engineers. If only Java would accrue new features as quickly as C#, they opine, or just step aside entirely and allow Kotlin to become the new defacto JVM language.

I’m unconvinced, and this article explains why.


Programming languages these days seem to mostly fit into two camps: mainstream languages accumulating features quickly to follow software development trends, or niche academic languages that prioritise theoretical purity at the expense of staying niche. JavaScript and Python constantly add new features via staged proposals and PEPs respectively, while minimal languages such as Scheme, Smalltalk, and Tcl remain nestled contently outside of mainstream programming software engineering conversation.

Java stands outside of both camps, a mainstream, popular language that nevertheless hasn’t succumbed to the churn of endless new features. Let’s discuss the important link this has with programming language coherency.

When discussing coherent programming language design, it’s important to concede that many languages with much purer designs, such as Kernel Lisp, Newspeak, Urbit’s Hoon, and Self, haven’t yet taken the software development world by storm. My comparisons will therefore remain within the arena of well-adopted languages that were not so divergent from the norm as to hinder mainstream adoption.

Let’s instead focus on the modern popular languages: JavaScript and its typed cousin TypeScript, C#, Java, Python, Ruby, Kotlin, Swift, and Go.

This defence of Java is really a broader plea for convervativeness in programming language theory that still respects expressive power.

The Backlash to Cleverness

The term “Java” conjures bad memories for many developers, likely the overwrought abstractions of JavaBeans, Spring runtime-based dependency injection, J2EE “active objects”, lengthy XML configurations, deep inheritence hierarchies, and tastelessly- and blindly-applied Gang of Four design patterns.

When given overarching ideologies, software engineers can often try to fit all solutions into it. Unlike engineering with concrete, girders, and plastics, software is transcribed ideas rather than the combining of limited physical resources. That makes it especially vulnerable to over-abstraction and what Joel Spolsky termed “architecture astronautism”.

A major failure of the last two decades of mainstream software engineering is understanding the benefits of abstraction without fully understanding its costs. Abstractions can be a force multiplier for developers so long as they don’t have too many leaky abstractions, but every layer is another that must be understood and debugged if it fails.

DirectX, OpenGL, and Vulkan are examples of abstractions that work well. They expose details of the underlying layers though implementation bugs and other oddities that any videogame engine developer will be able to elaborate on, but the industry surely wouldn’t voluntarily return to the era of writing custom integration code with every popular range of graphics card. These are examples of abstractions whose benefits greatly offset the cost of an additional layer to debug.

Java’s Spring Framework is an example of the opposite, an abstraction whose costs at least rivals, if not eclipses, the benefits it brings. This might be a controversial statement for its fans, but consider these Faustian bargains it wagers with developers who use it:

Spring is a cautionary tale that makes the costs of abstraction as clear as the benefits.

The backlash against such complexity has been the growth of tools that bask in simplicity, but then prescribe a very opinionated view of said simplicity as the One True Simplicity that other ecosystems simply haven’t yet become enlightened to.

For example, Go’s designers reject algebraic data types in order to keep the language simple, making a nil-avoiding Option type unfeasible, yet allows nils to be assigned to many types of variable. This is done in the name of simplicity, yet it complicates code that can no longer assume an interface or pointer value contain a usable interface value or a pointer to a valid value.

Another tradeoff includes its dragging of its feet on supporting generics but then rolling out its own synchronised map type, sync.Map, requiring runtime type casting to put values in and pull values out. This contradicts one of the original design rationales of Go, that static typing ultimately makes reasoning about codebases simpler despite the initial overhead for the developer.

These decisions aren’t wrong per se, just tradeoffs. Go’s designers have written extensive, thoughtful pieces on the tradeoffs of features like generics and their various potential implementations. The problem is that, despite the nuanced positions of some of its creators, the broader Go community do not position them as difficult tradeoffs but instead as a pursuit of a single vision of simplicity that mere “white collar” developers using other languages do not yet understand.

One of the early presentations about Go in its first wave of publicity mentioned that most junior Googlers would be better suited to Go precisely because it isn’t a “sophisticated language”.

It might have a point. Similar arguments are made against Lisp macros, that while experienced developers can produce tasteful, expressive abstractions with them, the majority of developers possess too high a likelihood of screwing it up and pointing that expressive power straight at their foot and pulling the trigger.

There is, however, a fatal flaw with this reasoning: crippling expressive power to remove footguns increases initial ease of use but decreases simplicity. This is something that Rich Hickey, the creator of Clojure, seems to understand more than most language designers.

Lacking Expressiveness Trades Simplicity for Ease-of-Use

Decreasing simplicity across the layers of our systems for a small, fixed increase in programming language ease-of-use is a decision that, given its impact on systems of the future, must be dissected in greater detail.

Some Java developers, upon seeing usages of the proposed lambdas in the then-upcoming Java 8, complained that it was less simple than the traditional way of solving the same problem:

List<Person> people = Arrays.asList(
    new Person("Tom", "Smith", true),
    new Person("Emma", "Clark", false)

List<Person> activePre8 = new ArrayList<>();
for (Person person : people) {
    if (person.isActive()) {

List<Person> activePost7 = people

For loops were better understood in the Java ecosystem as was the pattern of adding to a collection in a loop rather than “collecting” into one from a stream. By this interpretation it was simpler. The new way used opaque methods that were not well understood and new concepts like “streams” and “collectors”.

In truth, these complaints were not about simplicity but instead the ease-of-use for those used to established Java conventions. The complaint about the streaming hiding the loop iteration could also be used against Java 5’s enhanced for loops, that it unnecessarily hides the incrementing index. In fact, why have loops at all? They just obscure the comparisons and conditional jumps in the JVM bytecode.

If instead, simplicity is interpreted as the amount a developer must track in their mind to complete an operation, these abstractions atop comparisons and conditional jumps simplify rather than complicate the filtering into a list; a stream doesn’t even require the developer to spell out iteration constructs. The developer only cares that the list is somehow filtered, the implementation be damned.

Simplicity cannot be defined easily. Is it simpler to have fewer concepts for the developer to track, fewer operations for the physical hardware to perform, or the fewest new things to learn for those already familiar with the status quo?

I’d argue that simplicity in software is represented by having the fewest moving parts for a developer to track, being orthogonal, being a foundation for new features without creating inherent leakages of abstraction, and not encouraging intractible amounts of computation for hardware to solve beyond what’s expected for the problem.

How well does the Java 5 enhanced for loop honour this? New types can be integrated with it by implementing the Iterable interface, but it doesn’t scale up beyond abstracting linear, synchronous iteration. It doesn’t lead to intractible amounts of computation, instead compiling to roughly what we’d expect if the iterating loop were written out manually. It only applies to iteration and not anything outside of it.

What about concise lambdas? Any so-called SAM type can use them, that is, types with a Single Abstract Method. That makes them amenable to implementing new features, as it works with a fundamental notion of the language. It scales up well beyond a particular use case; while it can supersede the enhanced for loop with the Collection::forEach method, it can also implement any other API that befits lambdas including synchronous iteration, asynchronous iteration, monadic composition, event handlers, countless functional patterns, Smalltalk-style “block consuming” APIs, and more. It leads to somewhat intractible amounts of computation, depending on whether Java decides to compile it as a vanilla anonymous inner class method call or a invokedynamic invocation, but still has constant-time performance characteristics.

According to that definition of simplicity, lambdas are a simpler feature than enhanced for loops, especially as they supersede enhanced for loops with forEach calls.

Adding a generalised collection-iterating loop, like early Java and Go from its initial release, improves ease of use as there’s an immediately accessible language construct that makes a particular operation easier. Adding a generalised construct for abstraction, like modern Java’s lambdas, improves simplicity as there is a more expressive building block for new abstractions.

Many languages like Go and Python have focussed on ease-of-use features, small additions that make specific patterns easier. Modern Java from, say, version 5 has instead focussed more on simplicity of abstraction. While Go considers new special-case shortcuts for handling return values specifically of the error type and Python adds async/await to smooth out the usage and definition of asynchronous APIs, Java has instead focussed on fundamental building blocks of abstraction: lightweight threads to reduce the need for asynchronous APIs, value types like Go to encourage reasoning about small bags of data without identity, and a module system that allows bounding reflection which is otherwise an obstacle to performance and static reasoning of code.

This is why I think Java’s design is more coherent than many other mainstream languages today: that focus on simplicity of abstraction and orthogonality over direct ease of use.

Why Orthogonality is Important

Orthogonality allows language features to be considered independently of other features. Using one orthogonal feature does not necessitate dragging in others that don’t directly solve the user’s problem.

Non-orthogonal features compose poorly with other features. The additional feature to which they are tied could interfere with their being part of a larger composition.

Class-based object oriented programming provides several features such as polymorphism, encapsulation, and code reuse. Sadly, they are unorthogonal. Using just one of those features requires dragging in all of the others even if they are a poor match for the problem.

Classes provide dynamic dispatch, a useful mechanism for working out which behaviour to use at runtime depending on the runtime-detected subtype of an object instance. This mechanism comes in two flavours: single-dispatch and multiple-dispatch. Without multiple-dispatch, workarounds like the visitor pattern become necessary. In fact, many of the techniques in the “Gang of Four” are just working around such missing language features.

Classes tie polymorphism to implicit “this” parameters on methods, meaning single-dispatch becomes inevitable. The limitations of the class-based view of methods ends up weakening a feature that should be standalone: polymorphism via dynamic dispatch.

Common Lisp and Clojure instead provide polymorphism as a standalone feature. Not only can a program dynamically dispatch on a single this object, but it can dispatch on any number of parameters. Clojure goes a step further than Common Lisp, allowing parameters to trivially dispatch even on non-type conditionals. At this point it is a dynamic condition system that allows greater modularity, easier extending, and less nesting than just ifs and switches.

It’s clear, then, that a lack of orthogonality can cast a fog over a developer’s thought process, leading to their shaping of solutions around frameworks of thought like OOP rather than using small, simple abstractions to directly solve a problem.

A lack of orthogonality also hinders backwards-compatible language updates. Updating a language feature, whether it’s tweaking the syntax or overhauling the semantics, is more likely to break when it is entangled with several other unrelated features.

Java is class-based, so its original ‘90s inception is guilty of the aforementioned problem of tying polymorphism, encapsulation, and code reuse together into a single mechanism. Its newer features are quite orthogonal though, and it deserves credit for creating new features with greater orthogonality than many of its contemporaries.

Many languages could map and filter sequences long before Java, such as JavaScript and Ruby, but their versions were not orthogonal: they were tied to non-concurrent execution, eager evaluation and dumping each stage of results wholly in memory, and only made sense on finite, linear sequences.

By contrast, Java took streaming as a concept and detached it from the underlying data structure being streamed. This is not a remotely new concept; functional languages have done this for decades prior, and even mainstream languages like Perl adopted this strategy in their ecosystems from books like Higher Order Perl.

Having detached streaming from the underlying data structure type, they also took the idea of collecting a stream into a concrete result when finished, unmooring it from any real concrete representation until being realised. This meant it could also deal with infinite streams so long as the final collection produced something finite, Haskell-style.

Finally, Java did something quite rare in mainstream languages. It based the generation of streaming results on what it called “spliterators”, meaning that a streaming implementation was allowed to divide-and-conquer the streaming across multiple threads transparently and with ease.

C# and Haskell have comparable features, but it is a step up over other languages like Python, Ruby, Perl, and JavaScript.

How Programming Language Ecosystems become Echo Chambers

Why, if orthogonality is so important, does it come up so little in conversations with developers about additions they want to see in future versions of their language of choice?

The simple answer can be summarised by a well known line attributed to Henry Ford (with little evidence): “If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses”. To be less trite, developers perhaps know the benefit of new features without fully understanding the costs of adding them. These costs aren’t just paid for the language implementers, but also by developers themselves down the line.

This is why Anders Heljsberg pointed out that all new C# feature proposals start with minus points upon being proposed.

Any new feature is something all developers using the language must know once it is implemented. Even if they personally don’t use it, they will inevitably need to comprehend code that does. If that feature lacks orthogonality, it can also disrupt the developer’s understanding of an existing feature they already understood. If a feature is rushed, it might need to be reimplemented again in the future, either replacing the old version and breaking compatibility or living along side the old version. This is likely how C# ended up with three overlapping ways of passing code around by value: delegates, anonymous delegates, and lambdas.

New features will usually be a tradeoff between academic concerns and just “getting it done” so developers can start using it sooner. Pressure on programming language designers is arguably trading off too much of the former for the latter.

Language design for a mainstream language must respect the academic theory work but also be tempered by real world experience. Prescribing feature from academic ivory towers without real world studies creates flaws, as does designing by committee or adding features haphazardly based on how many developers “thumbed up” an issue on a language’s issue tracker.

Giving up this balance to appease a vocal minority of developers risks creating an echo chamber ecosystem while the silent majority of its developers become increasingly confused at its endless new features. Java has thankfully managed to avoid this.

Hosted Languages and Standalone Languages

Features can be refined, polished, and added in an orthogonal, tasteful manner, yet still not work due to a lack of runtime support. Not all language features can be compiled away; compiling Go or Erlang to JVM bytecode would be difficult due to their support for lightweight, preemptive multitasking. (Go’s is theoretically cooperative, but it’s close enough for most domains.)

Adding a new looping construct to a JVM language is simple because all loops compile down to conditional jumps regardless. Adding a new concurrency model, undelimited continuations, or stronger encapsulation guarantees requires changes to the underlying Java Virtual Machine. No amount of compilation trickery can work around this.

This is why Kotlin’s coroutines are oversold and not as revolutionary as some believe: they are little more than compile-time magic that still exposes all of the problems of asynchronous APIs, such as cascading changes from single line alterations, in Kotlin’s case needing to sprinkle suspend all the way down the callstack’s methods because just one method wanted to migrate from blocking to non-blocking.

When Java eventually added lambdas built atop the aforementioned SAM types, Scala’s ecosystem was temporarily broken because it had its own definition of lambdas atop the JVM. When a language chooses to use another language’s runtime, it saves the effort creating a runtime but at the cost of needing to align a language to a runtime geared towards running another different, potentially diverging, language. Clojure still can’t offer tail call elimination or a Common Lisp-style condition system for the same reason.

Some targets, such as LLVM or WebAssembly, are low-level enough and make so few assumptions about their source languages that almost any language could feasibly be compiled to them. This comes at the cost of the language needing to define its own runtime, its own garbage collector, its own lightweight task runtime, and more.

If a language wants to leverage an existing runtime’s optimisations and implementation, targeting another language’s runtime and accepting the mismatch might be an acceptable cost.

If a language instead wants to reduce the amount of mismatches and use a runtime that’s truly moulded to the language, it must define its own. Java did this, and can therefore make decisions that keep Java and the JVM working in unison. Other JVM languages do not have this benefit. This is why the rollout of Java 8 lambdas went more smoothly for Java than other JVM languages. This tradeoff is likely to repeat itself once Project Loom releases lightweight threads for the JVM and Kotlin ends up splitting its own ecosystem between coroutine-based non-blocking and Loom-based non-blocking.

The choices here seem to be:

The first and the second have some overlap, as bundling a runtime with a resulting executable isn’t that far from running your code on a preinstalled runtime. Technologies like GraalVM and C#’s Native AOT compiler blur the lines.

The third approach is problematic but is understandable for some languages given its benefits. But Java won’t suffer such problems simply because it owns its own runtime.

Surface Syntax and Programming Language Sales Pitches

Does the average developer care about these ruminations when looking at an exciting new language trending on sites like Hacker News? No. They care about how easy it makes throwing together a HTTP request or a command line utility.

This point seems to have been grasped by the Python community more than many others. While other languages extol the virtues of their type systems or “purity” of their programming models, Python just gives some definitions of well-known functions like factorial on the main page and then provides documentation about how to complete common tasks, such as making HTTP requests or putting together a GUI.

Python’s flimsy concurrency and parallelism model makes it likely they’ll need to migrate to another language in the future if they use it as a base for their startup, but that isn’t clear to them until much later. It hardly matters though; by the time a startup is large enough and has enough resources to justify a rewrite into another language, it’s likely already succeeded.

Those theoretical concerns do become important for larger companies as they need to scale though; Twitter started doing new work on the JVM rather than Ruby for good reasons.

Java has improved surface-level details for solving easy yet common problems. Java 9 introduced a REPL, and other new features like type inference and lambdas have made the surface syntax look more notationally elegant for solving quick problems. Reading a file, filtering lines, and formatting the result used to involve a mess of various IO and buffering classes. Now it’s just streaming over the results of Files#lines and collecting the result.

It turns out that building a more elegant surface syntax atop a solid foundation is easier than solidifying an crumbly foundation underneath an elegant surface syntax. Adding syntactical sugar is mostly additive if done right, but reworking foundations will break existing code and will eventually make a language unrecognisable. Python, especially CPython, has painted itself into a corner from which it cannot escape. Java, by contrast, has spent time building a castle atop concrete rather than sand and can now start adding nicities.

(To specifically understand CPython’s problems, research into how it does parallelism, how ubiquitous mutability of even fundamental program structure kills performance, and how it guarantees compatibility of tricks that thwart optimisations, such as allowing local variables in parent stackframes to be modified by callees through dynamic stack-walking.)

Slow, Coherent Growth versus “Agile” Accumulation of Features

As software development adopts churn from fad-driven cycles, it loses sight of foundational CS ideas that allows certain technologies to stand the test of time while others need to be rewritten after just a few years of inception. Unix, the web, and the JVM have survived decades and will likely survive more albeit with some tweaks. Most technologies come and fade away just enough to make an apperance on various technology enthusiast news aggregators but not enough to make a dent in the grand scheme of things.

Accruing features at a rapid pace can mask shaky foundations. The illusion of progress obscures poorly thought-out foundation ideas of a technology.

JavaScript countered criticisms from mainstream developers by throwing prototypal object-oriented programming under a bus in favour of class-based. While the latter is merely syntactical sugar for the former in ES6, the broader effect is normalising the class-based paradigm for new development. This is an example of having solid foundations but then choosing to ignore them to get more of those aforementioned “thumbs up from mainstream developers on language GitHub issues”. JavaScript now accrues more static features in its class features that directly contradict the dynamic nature of prototypes, such as super being statically resolved from a class’s extends clause rather than the prototype chain. The increased incoherence this brings will add more landmines even though so much of the JavaScript ecosystem is already moving away from classes. Functional components and hooks in React instead opt for other aspects of the language.

Java is class-based and never diverged from that. Furthermore, it built lambdas in a way that integrated smoothly with class-based OOP. By not diverging from the language’s foundations but instead embracing them, the language will maintain coherency for longer.

Java’s focus on implementing features slowly, coherently, and by a small team of experts rather than by committee is resulting in a better language. By contrast, JavaScript seems to have become much harder to reason about these days than the subset of ES5 that Douglas Crockford termed the “Good Parts”.

Why Java Will, and Should, Continue to Thrive for Years to Come

Sandboxing didn’t really work, ubiquitous reflection and the ability to dynamically revert accessibility and finality modifiers on fields was a mistake, and the lack of value types was a thorn in the runtime’s side. Put those aside, and the JVM is a technology that has really stood the test of time. The stack-based VM with portable bytecode worked well, and the solidification of the memory model in the face of concurrency in Java 5 gave it a permanent advantage over runtimes that pretended fine-grained task-based parallelism didn’t exist, like MRI Ruby, CPython, and Node.js.

Its type system weathered criticism for verbosity in the Noughties and came out of the other end as developers’ preferred approach, albeit with more type inference now in the mix. The ecosystems of JavaScript, Python, and even Ruby have begrudgingly admitted that full dynamic typing has maintainability problems in larger codebases. They don’t state this explicitly of course, but their actions speak louder than words: TypeScript is becoming almost a defacto source language for JavaScript and companies are rapidly adopting the Python typing module for new projects.

Java will continue to succeed because it coupled conservativeness of programming language theory with a respect for expressive power. It doesn’t accrue features just to appease, yet fits new feature smoothly into the existing foundations when it does. It doesn’t add excessively-overlapping features, yet respects the developer enough to give them powerful new abstractions once in a while.

Let’s stop chasing shininess in computing and let’s instead focus on refining the existing, long-serving tools with solid foundations. Build on the shoulders of giants.